Archeology Report of the New Brunswick sector of Gespegewagig


What is Archaeology
—        In Archaeology, an artifact is any object made or modified by a human culture, and often one later recovered by some archaeological endeavour.
—        Examples include stone tools such as projectile points, pottery vessels, metal objects such as buttons or guns, and items of personal adornment such as jewellery and clothing.
—        Other examples include bone that show signs of human modification, fire cracked rocks from a hearth or plant material used for food.
Why Study Archaeology
—        Artifacts prove presence on the land;
—        Archaeologists have methods to date artifacts and hypothesize on usage;
—        Archaeology is important to Mi’gmaq to prove presence on the land previous to European contact;
—        In order to prove Aboriginal title, the current law in Canada requires Mi’gmaq to prove continuous use of the land they claim;
—        Methods to prove title:
¡     Oral history, archaeology, anthropology, and history
—        Limits of Archaeology
¡     Can only study artifacts which can withstand decomposition;
¡     Not all artifacts survive;
¡     Examination of artifacts that survive decomposition only give partial perspective of peoples who created artifact.
Archaeology in Gespegewagig
—        Clues to Cultural Identity of Artifacts
¡     Shape
¡     Surface details
—        Artifacts shows cultures have adapted to changing circumstances
Key Archaeologists Studied Gespe’gawa’qi
—        Martijn (1968)
¡     Finds stored in Fredericton at the NB Archaeological Services
¡     Artifacts found in Pokemouche River
—        Buxton Keenlyside (1970)
¡     Finds stored in Archaeological Survey of Canada in Hull
¡     Artifacts found in 30 sites in Tracadie area;
—        Burley (1974)
¡     Finds stored in Fredericton at the NB Archaeological Services
¡     Artifacts found in Miramichi River
—        Allen (1982a)
¡     Finds stored in Fredericton at the NB Archaeological Services
¡     Artifacts found in Oxbow site Miramichi river
—        Ferguson (1983)
¡     Finds stored in Fredericton at the NB Archaeological Services
¡     Artifacts found in North Saint-Simon Bay and Miscou Island
—        Keenlyside (1990)
¡     Finds stored in Fredericton at the NB Archaeological Services
Paleoindian Arrival in Gespe’gawa’qi
—        The earliest human inhabitants of the Gespe’gawa’qi are the Mi'gmaq, but to archaeologists they are the Paleoindians.
—        Archaeologists date occupation about 12,000 BP (Before Present Age)
—        Clovis Point (Fluted Point) is distinctive stone found during this period from Arizona to Nova Scotia (Debert);
—        What is knowne about Paleoindians
¡     Were efficient pioneers
¡     Able to locate key natural resources required for survival;
—        Numerous Paleoindian sites found to exist in Maritimes Peninsula;
Distinctive Finds
—        Clovis Point
—        12,000 BP
—        Hogan-Mullin point (refers to illustrations in paper would insert beside each of these..if I had an example).
—        Kingsclear point
—        Southern Gulf Points
—        Debert type points
—        St. Anne points
Archaic Adaption (Early 8000-6000 BP; Middle 6500-5500BP; and Late (5500 to 3400BP)
—        Ground Stone Tools Appear including axes and gouges;
—        Dugout canoes;
—        Harpoons;
—        Stemmed projectile points
—        Finds in Southwest Miramichi (Gerrish site)
¡     Red ochre
Woodland Period (3400- 2700 BP)
—        Early Woodland Period
—        Miramichi Area:
¡     Copper artifacts and pottery (insert figure 27).
—        Middle Woodland Period
¡     Pottery thinner with finer grit and decorated with impressions;
—        Late Woodland Period
¡     Pottery decorated with twigs and cord. 
Climate and Population
—        Human population may have expanded during Late Woodland period
Copper Sites
—        Copper Sites
—        Augsutine Mound
—        Shediac Bay, NB
¡     Yielded copper nuggets, showing evidence of hammering and folding, blanks, sheet stock, rod-stocked artifacts and tubular beads
—        Range of artifacts and sites covered in report provide a basis for determining extent, duration and nature of Mi’gmaq occupation in Gaspe region.